Home   Top 10 Lists   Nutrition Facts   Super Foods   Fruits   Vegetables   Recipes   Blog   FAQ   

Top 10 Foods Highest in Calcium


Calcium is necessary for the growth and maintenance of strong teeth and bones, nerve signaling, muscle contraction, and secretion of certain hormones and enzymes. A deficiency in calcium can lead to numbness in fingers and toes, muscle cramps, convulsions, lethargy, loss of appetite, and abnormal heart rhythms. Conversely, excess calcium (particularly from supplements) can lead to kidney stones, calcification of soft tissue, and increased risk of vascular diseases like stroke and heart attack. Most calcium is found in dark leafy greens and dairy. While there is some evidence that oxalates in greens can hinder calcium absorption, they are still a good source of calcium, and the calculated percent daily value (%DV) already takes into account absorption and bio-availability. For more, see the section on calcium absorption. The %DV for calcium is 1000mg. Below is a list of high calcium foods by common serving size, for more, see the extended lists of high calcium foods by nutrient density, and calcium rich foods.

#1: Dark Leafy Greens (Watercress)
Calcium in 100g (Raw)1 Cup Chopped (34g)10 Sprigs (25g)
120mg (12% DV)41mg (8% DV)30mg (3% DV)
Other Greens High in Calcium (%DV per cup, chopped, raw): Curly Kale (14%), Dandelion Greens (10%), Turnip Greens (10%), Arugula (6%), and Collards (5%). Click to see complete nutrition facts.



#2: Low Fat Cheese (Mozzarella Nonfat)
Calcium in 100g 1 Cup Shredded (113g)1 Ounce (28g)
961mg (95% DV)1086mg (109% DV)269mg (27% DV)
Other Cheeses High in Calcium (%DV per ounce): Low Fat Swiss (27%), Reduced Fat Parmesan (31%) and Cottage Cheese 2% Fat (2%). Click to see complete nutrition facts.



#3: Low Fat Milk & Yogurt (Nonfat Milk)
Calcium in 100g 1 Cup (245g)Per Fluid Ounce (31g)
125mg (13% DV)306mg (31% DV)39mg (4% DV)
Other Dairy High in Calcium (%DV per cup): Nonfat yogurt (49%) and Low Fat Yogurt (45%). Click to see complete nutrition facts.



#4: Chinese Cabbage (Pak Choi, Bok Choy)
Calcium in 100g (Raw)1 Cup Shredded (70g)1 Head (840g)
105mg (11% DV)74mg (7% DV)882mg (88% DV)
Other Cabbage (%DV per cup cooked): Green Cabbage Cooked (4% DV), Red Leaf Cabbage Cooked (3% DV). Click to see complete nutrition facts.



#5: Fortified Soy Products (Tofu)
Calcium in 100g (Raw) 1/2 Cup Raw (124g)1/2 Cup Fried (124g)
350mg (35% DV)434mg (43% DV)1192mg (119% DV)
Other Soy Products High in Calcium (%DV per 1/2 cup): Nonfat Soy Milk with added calcium and vitamins A and D (13%) and Unsweetened Soy Milk with added calcium and vitamins (13%). Click to see complete nutrition facts.



#6: Okra (Cooked)
Calcium in 100g1 Cup Sliced (160g)8 Pods (85g)
77mg (8% DV)124mg (12% DV)65mg (7% DV)
Click to see complete nutrition facts.



#7: Broccoli
Calcium in 100g1 Cup Chopped (91g)1 Cup Cooked (156g)
47mg (5% DV)43mg (4% DV)62mg (6% DV)
One cup of cooked broccoli, boiled in water contains just 54 calories. Click to see complete nutrition facts.



#8: Green Snap Beans
Calcium in 100g (Raw)1 Cup Raw (110g)Per Cup Cooked (125g)
37mg (4% DV)41mg (4% DV)55mg (6% DV)
One cup of cooked green snap beans, boiled in water contains just 44 calories. Click to see complete nutrition facts.



#9: Almonds
Calcium in 100g1 Cup Whole (143g)1 Ounce (28g)
264mg (26% DV)378mg (38% DV)74mg (7% DV)
A one ounce (28g) serving of almonds, which is about 23 kernels, contains 161 calories. Click to see complete nutrition facts.



#10: Fish Canned (Sardines, in Oil, with Bones)
Calcium in 100g 1 Cup Drained (149g)1 Ounce (28g)
383mg (38% DV)569mg (57% DV)107mg (11% DV)
Other Canned Fish High in Calcium (%DV per ounce serving): Pink Salmon (8%), Anchovies (6%) and Shrimp (4%). Click to see complete nutrition facts.




Advertisement


The Top 10 High Calcium Foods by Nutrient Density (Calcium per Gram)

#1: Dried Herbs (Dried Basil, Thyme, Marjoram, Rosemary, Dill) 2113mg (211% DV) per 100 grams106mg (11% DV) per ground tablespoon (5 grams)Click to see complete nutrition facts for Dried Herbs
#2: Cheese (Parmesan, Romano, Gruyere, Goat’s, Swiss) 1376mg (138% DV) per 100 grams385mg (39% DV) per ounce (28 grams)Click to see complete nutrition facts for Cheese
#3: Sesame Seeds 975mg (98% DV) per 100 grams88mg (9% DV) per tablespoon (9 grams)Click to see complete nutrition facts for Sesame Seeds
#4: Tofu (Fried)372mg (37% DV) per 100 grams48mg (5% DV) per piece (13 grams)Click to see complete nutrition facts for Tofu
#5: Almonds 264mg (26% DV) per 100 grams74mg (7% DV) per ounce (23 kernels, 28 grams)Click to see complete nutrition facts for Almonds
#6: Flaxseeds 255mg (26% DV) per 100 grams26mg (3% DV) per tablespoon (10 grams)Click to see complete nutrition facts for Flaxseeds
#7: Dark Green Leafy Vegetables (Spinach, Swiss Chard, Beet Greens, Kale) 99mg (10% DV) per 100 grams Raw245mg (24% DV) per cup cooked (180 grams)Click to see complete nutrition facts for Dark Green Vegetables
#8: Milk and Yogurt (Whole Milk and Whole Milk Yogurt) 113mg (11% DV) per 100 grams276mg (28% DV) per cup (244 grams)Click to see complete nutrition facts for Milk and Yogurt
#9: Brazil Nuts 160mg (16% DV) per 100 grams45mg (4% DV) per ounce or 6 kernels (28 grams)Click to see complete nutrition facts for Brazil Nuts
#10: Fish (Herring, Pike, Bass, Perch, Rainbow Trout, Pollock) 74mg (7% DV) per 100 grams cooked106mg (11% DV) per cooked fillet (143 grams)Click to see complete nutrition facts for Fish

Other Calcium Rich Foods

Whey Powder796mg (80% DV) per 100 gram serving1154mg (115% DV) per (cup) (227 grams)64mg (6% DV) per tablespoonClick to see complete nutrition facts for Sweet Dried Whey
Whole Milk113mg (11% DV) per 100 gram serving276mg (28% DV) per cup (244 grams)35mg (4% DV) in a fluid ounce (31 grams)Click to see complete nutrition facts for Whole Milk
Low-Fat Buttermilk116mg (12% DV) per 100 gram serving284mg (28% DV) per cup (245 grams)36mg (4% DV) in a fluid ounce (31 grams)Click to see complete nutrition facts for Low-fat Buttermilk
Whole Wheat Bread107mg (11% DV) per 100 gram serving60mg (6% DV) in two slices (56 grams)30mg (3% DV) per slice (28 grams)Click to see complete nutrition facts for Whole Wheat Bread
Rhubarb 86mg (9% DV) per 100 gram serving 105mg (10% DV) per cup diced (122 grams) 44mg (4% DV) per stalk (51 grams) Click to see complete nutrition facts for Rhubarb
Fresh Thyme 405mg (41% DV) per 100 gram serving 4mg (0% DV) per teaspoon (1 gram) 2mg (0% DV) in 1/2 teaspoon (0.5 grams) Click to see complete nutrition facts for Fresh Thyme
Parsley 138mg (14% DV) per 100 gram serving 83mg (8% DV) per cup (60 grams) 6mg (1% DV) per tablespoon (4 grams) Click to see complete nutrition facts for Fresh Parsley
Endive 52mg (5% DV) per 100 gram serving 26mg (2% DV) per cup chopped (50 grams) 267mg (27% DV) per head (513 grams) Click to see complete nutrition facts for Endive
Capers (Canned) 40mg (4% DV) per 100 gram serving 4mg (0% DV) per tablespoon (9 grams) 8mg (1% DV) in two tablespoons (18 grams) Click to see complete nutrition facts for Capers
Tahini (Sesame Seed Paste) 426mg (43% DV) per 100 gram serving 64mg (6% DV) per tablespoon (15 grams) 119mg (12% DV) per ounce (28 grams) Click to see complete nutrition facts for Tahini
Molasses 205mg (21% DV) per 100 gram serving 691mg (69% DV) per cup (337 grams) 41mg (4% DV) per tablespoon (20 grams) Click to see complete nutrition facts for Molasses
Garlic 181mg (18% DV) per 100 gram serving 246mg (25% DV) per cup (136 grams) 16mg (2% DV) in three cloves (9 grams) Click to see complete nutrition facts for Garlic
Basil 177mg (18% DV) per 100 gram serving 11mg (1% DV) per cup of whole leaves (6 grams) 9mg (1% DV) in 2 chopped tablespoons (5 grams) Click to see complete nutrition facts for Basil
Lettuce (Greenleaf) 36mg (4% DV) per 100 gram serving 13mg (1% DV) per cup shredded (36 grams) 9mg (1% DV) per large outer leaf (24 grams) Click to see complete nutrition facts for Basil
Grape Leaves (Canned)289mg (29% DV) per 100 gram serving81mg (7% DV) per ounce (7 leaves)(28 grams)12mg (1% DV) per leaf (4 grams)Click to see complete nutrition facts for Canned Grape Leaves
Amaranth Greens (Chinese Spinach, Hinn Choy, Yin Tsoi, Rajgira, Bayam, Kulitis, Callaloo)215mg (22% DV) per 100 gram serving60mg (6% DV) per cup (28 grams)30mg (3% DV) per leaf (14 grams)Click to see complete nutrition facts for Raw Amaranth Leaves
Amaranth (Grain)47mg (5% DV) per 100 gram serving116mg (12% DV) per cup cooked (246 grams)Click to see complete nutrition facts for Amaranth Grain (Cooked)
Jute (Meloukhia)211mg (21% DV) per 100 gram serving184mg (18% DV) per cup (87 grams)92mg (9% DV) in a half-cup (44 grams)Click to see complete nutrition facts for Cooked Jute (Meloukhia)
Fireweed Leaves429mg (43% DV) per 100 gram serving99mg (10% DV) per cup (23 grams)94mg (9% DV) per plant (22 grams)Click to see complete nutrition facts for Raw Fireweed Leaves
Kelp (Seaweed)168mg (17% DV) per 100 gram serving134mg (13% DV) per cup (80 grams)17mg (2% DV) in 2 tablespoons (10 grams)Click to see complete nutrition facts for Raw Kelp (Seaweed)
Nopales164mg (16% DV) per 100 gram serving244mg (24% DV) per cup (149 grams)48mg (5% DV) per pad or leaf (29 grams)Click to see complete nutrition facts for Nopales
Canned Sardines382mg (38% DV) per 100 gram serving351mg (35% DV) per can (3.75 oz) (92 grams)92mg (9% DV) in two average sardines (24 grams)Click to see complete nutrition facts for Canned Sardines with Bones
Chili Powder278mg (28% DV) per 100 gram serving22mg (2% DV) per tablespoon (8 grams)8mg (1% DV) per teaspoon (3 grams)Click to see complete nutrition facts for Chili Powder
Chia Seeds (Dried)631mg (63% DV) per 100 gram serving177mg (18% DV) per ounce (28 grams)Click to see complete nutrition facts for Dried Chia Seeds
Lotus Seeds163mg (16% DV) per 100 gram serving52mg (5% DV) per cup (32 grams)46mg (5% DV) per ounce (42 seeds) (28 grams)Click to see complete nutrition facts for Dried Lotus Seeds
Cooked Mustard Greens74mg (7% DV) per 100 gram serving104mg (10% DV) per cup (140 grams)52mg (5% DV) in a half cup (70 grams)Click to see complete nutrition facts for Cooked Mustard Greens

Health Benefits of Calcium

  • Bone Health and Osteoporosis (*Controversial) - Adequate intake of calcium during childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood up to age 30 is essential to increase bone mass. The higher the bone mass at this age, the lower the risk of osteoporosis.2 Many factors lead to osteoporosis and affect its severity.3 There is mixed evidence if a diet higher in calcium benefits those with osteoporosis, however, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration still suggests that a diet high in calcium in addition with vitamin D and regular exercise may reduce risk of osteoporosis.4
  • Lower Blood Pressure (*Controversial) - There is mixed evidence if increased intake of calcium will lower or raise blood pressure.5-7 Several studies report that those who obtain calcium from plant sources are likely to have lower blood pressure and reduced risk of heart disease.8-12 Conversely, those who predominantly consume their calcium from salty cheeses are more likely to have higher blood pressure and increased risk of heart disease.
  • Reduced Risk of Colon Cancer (*Controversial) - Several observational studies link a higher intake of calcium with reduced colon cancer risk.13-16 However, various other studies report the results to be inconclusive when compared to a placebo group.16-18

Factors which Affect Calcium Absorption

  • Amount of Calcium Consumed - The more calcium you consume, the less you absorb. Though consuming more calcium will increase your total level.2
  • Age - Children absorb about 60% of the calcium from foods, while adults absorb only 20%. Calcium absorption decreases with age and people over 50 should eat more calcium.2
  • Pregnancy - Pregnant women absorb more calcium.2
  • Vitamin D Intake - Vitamin D enhances calcium absorption. It can be found in foods or created by exposing skin to sunshine.2
  • Phytic and Oxalic Acid - Even though some studies suggest phytic and oxalic acid affect calcium absorption, people eating a balanced diet will not be affected, further, the percent daily value already accounts for this absorption factor. High amounts of oxalic acid is found in plant foods like spinach, collard greens, sweet potatoes, rhubarb, and beans. Phytic acid is found in whole bread, and wheat bran.2
  • Sodium, Protein, Alcohol, Caffeine (Coffee and Tea) - A diet high in sodium, protein, alcohol, and caffeine (coffee and tea) can harm absorption and retention of calcium by causing more calcium to be excreted. Alcohol also interferes with the metabolism of vitamin D.2

Health Risks of Excessive Calcium Intake

  • Kidney Stones (*Controversial) - At least one clinical trial has shown that 7 years of vitamin D and calcium supplementation is associated with increased risk of kidney stones.30 However, several other studies report lower risk of kidney stones with increased calcium intake,31-33 which suggests that consumption of oxalates and lower intake of fluids are more likely to play a role in increasing kidney stone risk.34
  • Impairment of the Kidneys - Extremely high levels of calcium, often associated with hyperparathyroidism, as opposed to food or supplement intake, can impair functioning of the kidneys, and lead to reduced absorption of other essential minerals, such as iron, zinc, magnesium, and phosphorus.
  • Increased Risk of Cardiovascular Disease (*Controversial) - Some studies show that taking calcium supplements in excess of 500mg daily can increase risk of cardiovascular diseases.44,45
  • Increased Risk of Prostate Cancer (*Controversial) - Several studies have found a link between increased calcium intake, or 2.5 servings of dairy foods, and increased risk of prostate cancer. It is inconclusive whether the dairy products or the calcium increases the risk.19-25 However, several other studies have found no association between prostate cancer and calcium,26-29 suggesting that calcium from plant foods is better than from dairy products.
  • Decreased Absorption of Certain Medications - Excessive intake of calcium can decrease the absorption of the following:35-37
    • Biphosphonates (for osteoporosis)
    • Antibiotics (fluoroquinolone and tetracycline)
    • Levothyroxine (for hypothyroidism)
    • Phenytoin (an anticonvulsant)
    • Tiludronate disodium (for Paget's disease)

People at Risk of a Calcium Deficiency

  • Postmenopausal women - Due to a reduced level of the hormone estrogen, calcium absorption decreases in menopausal women.38 Unfortunately, an increased intake of calcium during this time may not help.39,40
  • Women who miss their menstrual period (Amenorrhea) - Amenorrhea is a condition that typically occurs in anorexic women, or women who are athletes. This is again due to a reduced level of estrogren. Increased intake of calcium foods is recommended.41
  • Individuals with lactose intolerance - People with lactose intolerance consume fewer dairy products, which in turn, can reduce the amount of calcium consumed.
  • Vegetarians and Vegans (*Controversial) - Oxalic and phytic acids found primarily in plant products are thought to reduce absorption of calcium.42 However, consumption of meats has also been shown to increase the excretion of calcium.43 As such vegetarians and vegans might not be any worse off than omnivores, but should still be sure to eat plenty of plant foods high in calcium.
  • People taking Certain Medications
    • Aluminum and magnesium containing antacids.
    • Mineral oil and stimulant laxatives.
    • Glucocorticoids, such as prednisone.

Warnings

  • Cheese and Whole Milk are high cholesterol foods which should be eaten in moderate amounts and avoided by people at risk of heart disease or stroke.
  • Sesame Seeds, Flax Seeds, Almonds, Molasses, and Brazil Nuts are high calorie foods and should be eaten in moderate amounts by people with a high body mass index.




Comments.
Name:Therman
Location:Oregon
Subject:Kelp
Why isn't kelp mentioned here? I have read it has the highest content of calcium of any food.
Posted on 2012-02-05 20:15:57
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: Kelp
Hi Therman, thanks for your comment. You are right that kelp is high in calcium, but it is not the highest of all foods. Perhaps dried kelp is the highest in calcium, but currently there are only nutrition facts for raw kelp. Thanks to your suggestion, kelp has now been added to the table for even more calcium rich foods.
Posted on 2012-02-05 21:01:03
Name:Wambui
Location:Nairobi
Subject:Calcium for 11 month old
My 11 months old baby is allergic to milk and its products like yorghut. What can I give to make sure her calcium intake is sufficient?
Posted on 2012-02-22 06:11:27
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: Calcium for 11 month old
Hi Wambui, thanks for your question. Are you giving your baby formula to substitute for the milk? If so, it may have calcium. Otherwise, try to boil and mash spinach and other green leafy vegetables, which can provide calcium. Also, you can try to cook and mash sweet potatoes which can be a good source of calcium. Hope that helps!
Posted on 2012-02-22 15:44:35
Name:Sue
Location:FL
Subject:Soy Products
I am a breast cancer survivor. Should I be eating soy products?
Posted on 2012-03-06 17:30:51
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: Soy Products
Hi Sue, thanks for your question. Many studies show that intake of soy can protect against breast cancer, this is true in spite of the phytoestrogens: estrogen like molecules in soy which some people think can increase risk of breast cancer. A very relevant paper entitled Soy for Breast Cancer Survivors: A Critical Review of the Literature, published in The American Society for Nutritional Sciences Journal (2001), concluded that soy will have no effect on cancer risk for breast cancer survivors, and "if breast cancer patients enjoy soy products, it seems reasonable for them to continue to use them."
Posted on 2012-03-06 20:43:53
Name:Marlyn
Location:Philippines
Subject:Surgical Menopause - TAHBSO
Postmenopausal women - Due to a reduced level of the hormone estrogen, calcium absorption decreases in menopausal women. Unfortunately, an increased intake of calcium during this time may not help. My question is how about surgical menopause(TAHBSO)? How can I acquire calcium which I think is much needed to prevent osteoporosis. Please help, I need more information about this.
Posted on 2012-04-01 19:01:47
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: Surgical Menopause - TAHBSO
Hi Marlyn, thanks for your comment. It is true that osteoporosis is a problem for post-menopausal women, and women who have undergone surgical menopause. The real issue is keeping your bones strong and in a state to absorb calcium. Current knowledge recommends doing exercises, including arobics and lifting weights. The strain from the exercise strengthens your bones, and all postmenopausal women should stay active and do weight lifting exercises. You can also talk to your health care provider about certain vitamin D supplements, since vitamin D aids in calcium absorption. Hope that helps.
Posted on 2012-04-01 19:39:05
Name:Lora
Location:NY
Subject:Black Sesame Seed Powder & Black Bean Powder
I bought from the Korean health food store a mix of black sesame seed powder and black bean powder. I bought this on recommendation for hair loss. I have been drinking 1/2 cup of this mixture with water for the last month. I seem to see results with my hair but I think I'm gaining weight too!! Is this fattening? How much of this should I be taking daily?
Posted on 2012-04-01 19:42:26
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: Black Sesame Seed Powder & Black Bean Powder
Hi Lora, thanks for your question. Black sesame seeds are definitely a high calorie food, having more calories than the black bean powder, however, even the black bean powder would be high in calories. The exact amount of calories would depend on the ratio of seeds to beans, but half a cup sesame seeds unground provides 412 calories. It is likely the mixture is contributing to your weight gain.
Posted on 2012-04-01 19:51:42
Name:Lori DeRosier
Location:Bridge City Tx
Subject:Sardines
Sardines also are high in calcium...50% DV per can (one serving).
Posted on 2012-04-26 14:05:30
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: Sardines
Hi Lori, thanks for your comment. These nutriton facts for canned sardines show a 35% DV in calcium per 3.5oz can, but it can depend on the size of a can. Also, the bones of the sardines may be included in the calculation.
Posted on 2012-04-26 14:08:57
Name:Mary
Location:Liverpool
Subject:Calcium Requirement for Seniors
How much Calcium should a penshioner have a day?
Posted on 2012-04-26 18:27:00
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: Calcium Requirement for Seniors
Hi Mary, the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for women 51+ years old is 1200mg per day. See The Office Of Dietary Supplements Fact Sheet on Calcium for more info.
Posted on 2012-04-26 19:19:56
Name:Mary
Location:Ireland
Subject:Heart disease and calcium
Hi, I was diagnoised with minor coronary artery disease a few months ago, this came as a shock to me, I never smoked, I excercise everyday, I am perfect weight for my height, there is no history of heart disease in my family, I eat very well, the only thing that I was concerned about was that I have been taking 1200 mg of calcuim with vit D for the past ten years. I am a 55 year old female. Thank you, Mary.
Posted on 2012-06-24 04:34:50
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: Heart disease and calcium
Hi Mary, thanks for your comment. While it is controversial, studies have shown that women taking a calcium supplement in excess of 500mg daily have increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
Posted on 2012-06-24 09:14:17
Name:Valerie
Location:Scotland
Subject:Calcium & Cardiovascular Disease
I consume around 700-800mg of calcium through diet each day & also take a daily 500mg calcium & vitamin D supplement. Would this be considered excessive calcium consumption, and therefore increase the risk of heart disease? I'm 45 & take biphosphonates for osteoporosis.
Posted on 2012-07-02 22:59:35
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: Calcium & Cardiovascular Disease
Hi Valerie, thanks for your question. The whole relationship of calcium to cardiovascular disease is controversial, with some studies reporting no effect. You current intake of calcium is 1300mg, which puts you well below the upper limit (UL) of 2500mg. You should be ok, but you may talk to your doctor about only taking 300mg in supplements and trying to get the rest from food which is better regulated by the body.
Posted on 2012-07-02 23:07:58
Name:Ken
Location:Canada
Subject:Soy milk for boys
Mothers, please do your research before giving soy milk to babies (boys specially).
Posted on 2012-09-12 15:02:16
Name:Drew
Location:USA
Subject:Almonds, Terrible Source of Ca
Almonds are #4? If almonds are in the number four spot, then this list could be very misleading. You suggest that almonds are a good source of calcium per unit of mass. You ignore the fact that almonds are extremely calorie rich. If an adult male were to satisfy his daily recommended allowance of calcium (1000 mg) by eating only almonds, he would have to consume 2200 calories of almonds. That would leave no room to eat ANYTHING ELSE. Doesn't that make almonds a TERRIBLE source of calcium?

Whether a food is a good or bad source of calcium should not be based on calcium content per unit of mass; it should be based on calcium content per calorie. What am I missing? If you say, that almonds are meant to be consumed in small quantities, well okay, but in that case they will provide a negligible amount of calcium. Right?

Posted on 2012-09-24 10:35:29
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: Almonds, Terrible Source of Ca
Hi Drew, thanks for your comments and raising these concerns. Almonds, while high in calories, do provide 7% DV in calcium per ounce (167 calories), which is hardly negligible. Second, there is a warning in the "warnings" section of this article to notify people that almonds are high in calories and should be avoided by those who are overweight, or trying to limit calories.

Further, your assumption about almonds overlooks many diet groups. People on a raw food diet will typically get 67% of their calories from fats, and mostly nuts. Vegans and vegetarians may also eat a much higher portion of nuts. Lastly, even though it is hard to believe in these obese/overweight times, there are many people actually trying to gain weight, and looking for high calorie foods. Check the comments on the high calorie foods article for proof.

Beyond that, a method of ranking had to be chosen, and weight was chosen over calories. The goal of this article is to inform readers about new foods they can add to their diet to get more calcium. Whether that is a teaspoon of herbs, a bowl of yogurt, or a handful of almonds. There is an extended list of calcium rich foods, for even more suggestions that covers pretty much everything. If even that is not enough, you can use the nutrient ranking tool to find even more foods to suit you. Hope those thoughts help clarify things, and thanks again for the feedback.

Posted on 2012-09-24 12:58:17
Name:L
Location:Australia
Subject:Calcium Absorption
Great reference. However, you don't specify if the tahini is hulled or unhulled. My understanding is that unhulled tahini is nearly double the calcium. Also spinach (unlike other greans like kale and brocoli) is high in oxalic acid which can reduce absorbtion. I have also read that calcium from milk is only about 40% absorbed. Could you clarify absorbtion rates if information is available? Thanks.
Posted on 2012-11-04 08:43:37
Name:Barry
Location:Scotland
Subject:Almond milk
Hi what about home made almond milk one part almonds to three parts water used mainly for cereal? How could I measure the calcium content? Best regards, Barry.
Posted on 2012-11-20 13:19:38
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: Almond Milk
Hi Barry, thanks for your question. Are you drinking every part of the almond? That is to say, all the fiber and skin from the nuts? Or are you filtering the milk?

If you are drinking all of it, then you can simply use the almond nutrition facts, and calculate the amount of calcium from the amount of almonds you used. For example, if you used 1 cup of almonds, then 1 cup of your almond milk, mixed evenly, would have 1/4 of the calcium from the cup of almonds. That is to say, using your 1 part to 3 parts. So 1 cup of raw almonds contains 378mg (38% DV) of calcium, and 1 cup of your milk (1 part to 3 parts water) would provide 95mg (10% DV). Calcium is water soluble, so you can expect it to be in the water (or milk).

Posted on 2012-11-21 02:30:24
Name:Olafr
Location:Finland
Subject:Chia Seeds
Everyone seems to forget Chia Seeds. They're an excellent source of calcium and omega-3 as well-- even better than flax. 100g offers 63% of your daily calcium needs. Though of course a better amount to eat is roughly 28-56g a day and that still offers a whole lot. 18 to 36% of your daily need.
Also, all of you talking about soy, fermented soy doesn't have the same effects are unfermented soy products. I could rant about that for a long time but that's off topic and up to your own decision to eat or not.
Anyway, if it's possible for you to edit this I think chia seed would be a wonderful addition. To digest flax it must be ground. Chia can be digested without being ground.
Posted on 2012-12-12 07:57:23
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: Chia Seeds
Hi Olafr, thanks for your comment and suggestion. Chia seeds have now been added to the extended list of calcium rich foods.
Posted on 2012-12-12 08:00:59
Name:Barbara Beale
Location:Shrewsbry UK
Subject:Chia Seeds
Hi, Where can I get the chia seeds please?There is bad history of osteoporesis in my family. Do we have a disease of absorption? Thanks, Barbara.
Posted on 2012-12-28 09:51:31
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: Chia Seeds
Hi Barbara, thanks for your question. Chia seeds are likely available at your local health food store, and can also be ordered from Amazon.com. Osteoporosis has many causes including a lack of muscle building exercises, as well as low vitamin D. Get your calcium levels checked to determine if it is the cause, and be careful about taking excessive calcium supplements.
Posted on 2012-12-28 16:59:14
Name:Claire
Location:South Africa
Subject:Fresh Herbs for Calcium
I'm a vegan and my son a lactovegetarian - because I'm a little concerned about his calcium intake, so I loved this article!! As avid food gardeners we have a lot of the above mentioned herbs in 'fresh' format - how do these rate in terms of calcium content?
Posted on 2013-02-27 11:15:57
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: Fresh Herbs for Calcium
Hi Claire, thanks for your question. Fresh herbs, particularly thyme, rosemary, basil, spearmint, peppermint, and dill can all be a good part of increasing calcium intake, but are not great sources of calcium on their own. 1/4 cup of fresh basil provides 10mg (1% DV) of calcium. As such, you are better off getting calcium from fresh greens like turnip greens and kale.
Posted on 2013-02-27 14:25:47
Name:Rose
Location:Connecticut
Subject:Excess Calcium
My doctor told me after a blood test that my calcium is very high. I am a breast cancer survivor and had a full hysterectomy. I thought I was doing the right thing by taking 5000mg calcium. I don't know what to eat now. My diet consist of low fat yogurt, milk, and green veggies such as broccoli, brussels sprouts, and asparagus etc. What should I do?
Posted on 2013-04-25 18:19:27
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: Excess Calcium (Hypercalcemia)
Hi Rose, thanks for your question and sharing your experience. High blood calcium, or hypercalcemia, can be treated in a variety of ways, depending on the cause. If you think your hypercalcemia was caused by your diet and supplements, then stop the supplements and avoid the low fat dairy for a while, and see if your calcium is lower by your next test. If your calcium level does not go down, your hypercalcemia maybe caused by primary hyperparathyroidism, and you will want to get your thyroid checked. However, for now, just stop the supplements, change your diet, and see if that works. Hope those thoughts help.
Posted on 2013-04-26 02:42:41
Name:George
Location:Colorado
Subject:Stop the DAIRY (RE: Excess Calcium)
Rose, eat massive amounts of raw food and especially leafy greens. Dairy is your enemy in your situation.
Posted on 2013-04-27 17:18:37
Name:Pat
Location:West Chester, PA
Subject:Spinach and Oxalates
Spinach is a very nutritious vegetable but much of the calcium absorption is blocked by the natural oxalate content.
Posted on 2013-05-05 08:33:53
Name:Dennis
Location:California
Subject:HIV Meds & Osteopenia
I just had a bone density test and was found to have Osteopenia or "weak bones." I've been HIV + for about four years and on a HIV medication, Atripla, for about three. Atripla contains 3 medications and one of them, Tenofovir, may be the cause of my bone weakness. I hate the thought of transitioning from Atripla to another drug. My doctor has recommended 1000-2000 IUs of Vitamin D3 and 1500 mg of elemental calcium daily (split dose, 3x/day with meals). I am concerned about vascular health though and reluctant to take the supplements. On the other hand, so many of the high calcium foods (dairy) may also contribute to higher cholesterol levels. Do you have any suggestions on how I might best navigate this? THX
Posted on 2013-07-03 20:15:28
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: HIV Meds & Osteopenia
Hi Dennis, thanks for your question and sorry to hear of your situation. It does appear to be tricky. The good news is that the question of calcium supplements and cardiovascular risk is controversial, and therefore, should not out weight the benefit of the supplements. Try taking the supplements while keeping an eye on your blood calcium level at your next blood test, or check up. As long as your blood (serum) calcium remains in a normal level you are likely ok. The Office of Dietary Supplements states "Many scientists have questioned the strength of the available evidence that links supplemental calcium intake with CVD risk...In their 2012 review of prospective studies and randomized clinical trials, Wang and colleagues concluded that calcium intake from diet or supplements appears to have little or no effect on CVD risk but the available evidence does not allow for a definitive conclusion..." That said, getting away from the supplements would be best when your bones are healthy. In regards to dairy foods, consider low fat or non-fat options. Dark leafy greens are also an excellent heart healthy source of calcium. Hope that helps.
Posted on 2013-07-04 02:19:26
Name:Jostein
Location:Norway
Subject:Amaranth
According to what I can find Amaranth is a good source for calcium and its got more than milk per 100 grams, and more than dark leafy greens. Should be on this list I think.
Posted on 2013-08-29 23:38:08
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: Amaranth
Hi Jostein, thanks for your comment. 100 grams of cooked Amaranth provides 47mg (5% DV) of calcium. This is less than both dark leafy greens and milk. However, as Amaranth grain is a good source of calcium it has been added to the extended list of calcium rich foods below Amaranth greens. Here are the complete nutrition facts for cooked Amaranth grain.
Posted on 2013-08-30 02:43:19
Name:Carole Heath
Location:Surrey
Subject:Stopping calcium supplements
I have been on a site recently which has said that calcium supplements are not always good for the health. I take a daily tablet of calcium and magnesium. I also take a daily multi vitamin. After reading some of the comments by people on this particular site I think I will ditch the calcium supplement and get my intake from foods. I know that Soya products like the Soya milk is good for bone density and I read it also helps cholesterol levels too.
Posted on 2013-09-16 07:38:30
Name:Rob
Location:Essex
Subject:Bone broth
Broth is also a very good source of calcium and various other minerals, use it as a base for soups or drink it warm from a mug on a cold day, delicious!
Posted on 2013-09-20 21:21:27
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: Bone broth
Hi Rob, thanks for your comment. According the the nutrition facts for both chicken and beef broth, each provides 1% DV calcium per cup (8 fl ounces). However, both are low in calories, and rich in other minerals. You are right to say it makes a health ingredient or beverage. Also, the manner in which the broth is made likely affects the calcium level.
Posted on 2013-09-23 04:08:34
Name:Leo
Location:New York
Subject:Egg Shell Powder
Even though 100 grams of sesame seeds provides 98% DV of calcium, I've read that most of that calcium is in the form of calcium oxalate which is not easily absorbed and may contribute to the formation of kidney stones which are formed from calcium combining with oxalate. In seeking an alternative source of calcium I've come across egg shell powder but haven't found a listing for it here. Will an entry for egg shell powder or simply egg shells be provided or is the nutritional content of egg shells already included somewhere?
Posted on 2013-11-16 04:22:11
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: Egg Shell Powder
Hi Leo, thanks for sharing your opinion and for your question. The nutrition facts for egg shell powder have not been analyzed. Likely it is very high in calcium, but is something more in the domain of a natural supplement than a food, and so will not be included on this list.
Posted on 2013-11-17 05:27:28
Name:Leo
Location:New York
Subject:Alternate Sources of Calcium
I've also come across Red Marine Algae and Hemp Seeds as nutritional sources of calcium and other nutrients. Will these be considered for evaluation as foods?
Posted on 2013-11-17 05:28:16
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: Alternate Sources of Calcium
Hi Leo, thanks for sharing these sources and for your question. As Spriulina, a form of algae, is already in the database, it is likely that Red Marin Algae will be added in the next year or so. The same could be said for hemp seeds.
Posted on 2013-11-18 06:27:48
Name:Deepa
Location:Hyderabad
Subject:Sesame seeds, good or bad..?
Hi, I am very low on calcium so I was asked to use more of dairy products and green leaves. I recently started taking 100gms of sesame seeds with 300ml milk a day. Is there higher risk of kidney stones because of this sesame seeds or I will survive for quite long without that problem as I lack calcium. Please give me a suggestion. Thank you, Deepa.
Posted on 2013-12-15 23:52:28
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: Sesame seeds, good or bad..?
Hi Deepa, thanks for your question. Sesame seeds are a good source of calcium, however, you have to be aware that they contain oxalates which can increase risk of kidney disease. Has anyone else in your family had kidney stones before? If not, you may be ok. However, to be cautious, you may scale back to 25 grams of sesame seeds a day, and increase your milk/yogurt intake. Eating more greens also helps.

Another draw back on sesame seeds is that they are high in calories, so unless you are trying to gain weight, it would be best to also scale back to 25 grams for that reason. However, if you are trying to gain weight, you can consume 50 grams of sesame seeds. I hope that helps.

Posted on 2013-12-17 20:28:22
Name:Daniele Santos
Location:Canada
Subject:Baking almond crumbs
Hi, I make almond milk at home (raw almonds blended and filtered through a fine strainer) and use the filter leftovers in the bread I also make. Do you think this is a good idea (putting in the bread)? And considering the almond gets toasted while the bread dough is baking, is the calcium still absorbable by our body?
Posted on 2014-01-07 00:41:19
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: Baking almond crumbs
Hi Daniele, thanks for your question. Baking the almonds in the bread would not affect their calcium content, and you will still be able to absorb the calcium. That said, calcium is water soluble, meaning that most of the calcium would go through to the almond milk you are making. The filter leftovers would still have some calcium content however, and are also great to add to the bread due to the fiber content. Hope that helps.
Posted on 2014-01-13 18:12:37
Name:Susan
Location:Louisiana
Subject:Dairy does not prevent osteoporosis
For over 65 years, I consumed lots of dairy --about 1 quart of milk and yogurt per day. Also, ingested cal-mag or mineral supplements for 10 years, later in life. This did little for preventing osteoporosis or even building bone quickly!

I fractured my hip in 2006, received two compression fractures of my lumbar spine in 2012 and 2014, and fractured other spines in between time, as well as fractured my pelvis in 2013. Not all occurred from falls. Some just broke from reaching.

My exercise was wrong, I've now learned. I swam 1 mile per day or cycled, but I also walked 2.5 miles per day prior to injuring my knee and receiving a total knee replacement in 2007.

In 2012, in order to reduce pain and inflammation, I ate an anti-inflammatory diet which became totally vegan. Now, I carefully select plants and seeds that have nutrients I need to build bone quickly.

Recently, my attending Board-Certified Orthopaedic Surgeon whom I requested checked my x-rays at the time of the pelvic fracture, and 3 weeks later, said to me that he would expect to see bones built like mine after 3 months, but not after 3 weeks. He never saw anyone build bone so quickly. By the time I finished physical therapy, 4 weeks later, another x-ray showed my pelvis was totally healed. All x-rays were within a two month time span and showed a complete healing on my fracture.

I have ingested 6 cups chopped collard greens/day with 1 cup cannellini beans, one red onion, fresh garlic, and assorted other foods high in calcium, magnesium, boron, and other nutrients cited in a book, entitled: Building Bone Vitality: A Revolutionary Diet Plan to Prevent Bone Loss and Reverse Osteoporosis--Without Dairy by Amy Lanou and Michael Castleman (May 1, 2009).

One does not need dairy to build bone. In fact, an increasing number of physicians subscribe to the theory that dairy acts to acidify blood, and the calcium in our bones is leached out to reduce the acidity. See this NY Times article for more info.

I only have consumed foods grown by the organic method without herbicides and other chemical pest controls, chemical fertilizers, etc. for 35 years and hope to grow my own in raised beds as soon as my compost is ready.

Why organic? Because chemically "treated" agriculture contains mineral chelators. As explained by expert: Don Huber, Ph.D., an award-winning, internationally recognized scientist and professor emeritus of plant pathology at Purdue University for 50 years. His agriculture research is focused on the epidemiology and control of soil - borne plant pathogens, with specific emphasis on microbial ecology, cultural and biological controls, and the physiology of host - parasite relationships.

Dr. Huber said in an interview posted online with osteopathic physician, Dr. Jim Mercola: "There are zero peer-reviewed scientific papers establishing the safety of the GMO (genetically modified organism) crops or of the products that they’re engineered to accept or produce."

The scientists cannot talk about genetic engineering without talking about the chemicals they are genetically engineered to tolerate, "especially glyphosate, it’s not just an herbicide. It was first patented as a mineral chelator. It immobilizes nutrients, so they’re not physiologically available for all of those health functions that we really on. It’s patented as a very effective antibiotic for a large number of organisms, especially for our intestinal microorganisms, our gut bacteria."

Dr. Huber went on to say: "The problem is that they’re potent antibiotics for the good guys both in the soil as well as in our intestines or the intestines of our animals.

As a consequence of that, when you take out Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Enterococcus faecalis, and those organisms... Those are what keep us healthy either by providing accessibility to the minerals in our food or producing many of the vitamins that we need for our life. But they’re also the natural biological controls to keep Clostridium, Salmonella, and E.coli from developing in our system."

By eating food grown by the organic method, and by eating vegan and choosing to best whole foods for my body, I am getting the nutrients needed to build and repair.

I add 2,000 IU of vitamin D3 per day, and more weight bearing exercise --the missing link to keeping bones strong. Dairy does not prevent osteoporosis or build strong bones --that's propaganda by the dairy industry.

Posted on 2014-03-31 20:48:26
Name:Bunny
Location:Louisiana
Subject:Whole foods vs supplements
Whole foods have a range of various nutrients that work together whereas supplements only have individual nutrients and even those are lacking.

Additionally, while certain seeds and nuts also contain calcium, they also contain a huge amount of calories. I eat 6 cups of chopped, steamed collard greens cooked with garlic, a red Bermuda onion, and a serving of cannellini beans, with other ingredients rich in calcium and magnesium added for both taste and nutritional value and receive a bountiful supply of both calcium and other bone building nutrients with a lower fat content and have not gained weight. In fact, by eating a vegan diet and selecting the healthiest foods for my body, I've lost weight.

BTW, the highest known source of magnesium in food is pumpkin seeds.

Eating a variety of calcium rich foods plus other nutrients needed and supplementing with vitamin D needed for strong bones and prevention of certain other illnesses is far superior to taking large amounts of supplements.

Posted on 2014-03-31 20:53:37
Name:Bunny
Location:Louisiana
Subject:Highest calcium in beans and legumes
I misread that cannellini beans were the highest known source of calcium in plant foods. While better than most beans, the better source are Black Turtle Soy beans. According to the nutrition label one cup of Beans, black turtle soup, mature seeds, raw is 39 grams of protein, 29% calcium or 294 mg of calcium; Magnesium 294 mg; Phosphorus 810mg and lots of other nutrients.

This is far superior to cannellini (white beans), which has 191 mg of calcium per serving canned.

I generally buy raw,and soak, then cook my own to avoid the toxic constituents leach from the cans into the food.

Posted on 2014-04-01 22:05:50
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: Highest calcium in beans and legumes
Hi Bunny, thanks for your comment. According to the nutrient ranking of beans and legumes highest in calcium there are a few beans higher in calcium gram per gram. Black turtle beans rank at number 58, behind winged beans and french beans. Black beans are a good choice however, and your comment has inspired the idea to create an article on beans/legumes high in calcium. Thanks again.
Posted on 2014-04-02 00:55:45

Post a comment.
Name:          
Location:       
Email:(Optional)
Subject:         

Spam Prevention *(REQUIRED):
Enter the last three letters of this sentence.
Comments.
Name:Therman
Location:Oregon
Subject:Kelp
Why isn't kelp mentioned here? I have read it has the highest content of calcium of any food.
Posted on 2012-02-05 20:15:57
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: Kelp
Hi Therman, thanks for your comment. You are right that kelp is high in calcium, but it is not the highest of all foods. Perhaps dried kelp is the highest in calcium, but currently there are only nutrition facts for raw kelp. Thanks to your suggestion, kelp has now been added to the table for even more calcium rich foods.
Posted on 2012-02-05 21:01:03
Name:Wambui
Location:Nairobi
Subject:Calcium for 11 month old
My 11 months old baby is allergic to milk and its products like yorghut. What can I give to make sure her calcium intake is sufficient?
Posted on 2012-02-22 06:11:27
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: Calcium for 11 month old
Hi Wambui, thanks for your question. Are you giving your baby formula to substitute for the milk? If so, it may have calcium. Otherwise, try to boil and mash spinach and other green leafy vegetables, which can provide calcium. Also, you can try to cook and mash sweet potatoes which can be a good source of calcium. Hope that helps!
Posted on 2012-02-22 15:44:35
Name:Sue
Location:FL
Subject:Soy Products
I am a breast cancer survivor. Should I be eating soy products?
Posted on 2012-03-06 17:30:51
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: Soy Products
Hi Sue, thanks for your question. Many studies show that intake of soy can protect against breast cancer, this is true in spite of the phytoestrogens: estrogen like molecules in soy which some people think can increase risk of breast cancer. A very relevant paper entitled Soy for Breast Cancer Survivors: A Critical Review of the Literature, published in The American Society for Nutritional Sciences Journal (2001), concluded that soy will have no effect on cancer risk for breast cancer survivors, and "if breast cancer patients enjoy soy products, it seems reasonable for them to continue to use them."
Posted on 2012-03-06 20:43:53
Name:Marlyn
Location:Philippines
Subject:Surgical Menopause - TAHBSO
Postmenopausal women - Due to a reduced level of the hormone estrogen, calcium absorption decreases in menopausal women. Unfortunately, an increased intake of calcium during this time may not help. My question is how about surgical menopause(TAHBSO)? How can I acquire calcium which I think is much needed to prevent osteoporosis. Please help, I need more information about this.
Posted on 2012-04-01 19:01:47
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: Surgical Menopause - TAHBSO
Hi Marlyn, thanks for your comment. It is true that osteoporosis is a problem for post-menopausal women, and women who have undergone surgical menopause. The real issue is keeping your bones strong and in a state to absorb calcium. Current knowledge recommends doing exercises, including arobics and lifting weights. The strain from the exercise strengthens your bones, and all postmenopausal women should stay active and do weight lifting exercises. You can also talk to your health care provider about certain vitamin D supplements, since vitamin D aids in calcium absorption. Hope that helps.
Posted on 2012-04-01 19:39:05
Name:Lora
Location:NY
Subject:Black Sesame Seed Powder & Black Bean Powder
I bought from the Korean health food store a mix of black sesame seed powder and black bean powder. I bought this on recommendation for hair loss. I have been drinking 1/2 cup of this mixture with water for the last month. I seem to see results with my hair but I think I'm gaining weight too!! Is this fattening? How much of this should I be taking daily?
Posted on 2012-04-01 19:42:26
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: Black Sesame Seed Powder & Black Bean Powder
Hi Lora, thanks for your question. Black sesame seeds are definitely a high calorie food, having more calories than the black bean powder, however, even the black bean powder would be high in calories. The exact amount of calories would depend on the ratio of seeds to beans, but half a cup sesame seeds unground provides 412 calories. It is likely the mixture is contributing to your weight gain.
Posted on 2012-04-01 19:51:42
Name:Lori DeRosier
Location:Bridge City Tx
Subject:Sardines
Sardines also are high in calcium...50% DV per can (one serving).
Posted on 2012-04-26 14:05:30
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: Sardines
Hi Lori, thanks for your comment. These nutriton facts for canned sardines show a 35% DV in calcium per 3.5oz can, but it can depend on the size of a can. Also, the bones of the sardines may be included in the calculation.
Posted on 2012-04-26 14:08:57
Name:Mary
Location:Liverpool
Subject:Calcium Requirement for Seniors
How much Calcium should a penshioner have a day?
Posted on 2012-04-26 18:27:00
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: Calcium Requirement for Seniors
Hi Mary, the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for women 51+ years old is 1200mg per day. See The Office Of Dietary Supplements Fact Sheet on Calcium for more info.
Posted on 2012-04-26 19:19:56
Name:Mary
Location:Ireland
Subject:Heart disease and calcium
Hi, I was diagnoised with minor coronary artery disease a few months ago, this came as a shock to me, I never smoked, I excercise everyday, I am perfect weight for my height, there is no history of heart disease in my family, I eat very well, the only thing that I was concerned about was that I have been taking 1200 mg of calcuim with vit D for the past ten years. I am a 55 year old female. Thank you, Mary.
Posted on 2012-06-24 04:34:50
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: Heart disease and calcium
Hi Mary, thanks for your comment. While it is controversial, studies have shown that women taking a calcium supplement in excess of 500mg daily have increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
Posted on 2012-06-24 09:14:17
Name:Valerie
Location:Scotland
Subject:Calcium & Cardiovascular Disease
I consume around 700-800mg of calcium through diet each day & also take a daily 500mg calcium & vitamin D supplement. Would this be considered excessive calcium consumption, and therefore increase the risk of heart disease? I'm 45 & take biphosphonates for osteoporosis.
Posted on 2012-07-02 22:59:35
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: Calcium & Cardiovascular Disease
Hi Valerie, thanks for your question. The whole relationship of calcium to cardiovascular disease is controversial, with some studies reporting no effect. You current intake of calcium is 1300mg, which puts you well below the upper limit (UL) of 2500mg. You should be ok, but you may talk to your doctor about only taking 300mg in supplements and trying to get the rest from food which is better regulated by the body.
Posted on 2012-07-02 23:07:58
Name:Ken
Location:Canada
Subject:Soy milk for boys
Mothers, please do your research before giving soy milk to babies (boys specially).
Posted on 2012-09-12 15:02:16
Name:Drew
Location:USA
Subject:Almonds, Terrible Source of Ca
Almonds are #4? If almonds are in the number four spot, then this list could be very misleading. You suggest that almonds are a good source of calcium per unit of mass. You ignore the fact that almonds are extremely calorie rich. If an adult male were to satisfy his daily recommended allowance of calcium (1000 mg) by eating only almonds, he would have to consume 2200 calories of almonds. That would leave no room to eat ANYTHING ELSE. Doesn't that make almonds a TERRIBLE source of calcium?

Whether a food is a good or bad source of calcium should not be based on calcium content per unit of mass; it should be based on calcium content per calorie. What am I missing? If you say, that almonds are meant to be consumed in small quantities, well okay, but in that case they will provide a negligible amount of calcium. Right?

Posted on 2012-09-24 10:35:29
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: Almonds, Terrible Source of Ca
Hi Drew, thanks for your comments and raising these concerns. Almonds, while high in calories, do provide 7% DV in calcium per ounce (167 calories), which is hardly negligible. Second, there is a warning in the "warnings" section of this article to notify people that almonds are high in calories and should be avoided by those who are overweight, or trying to limit calories.

Further, your assumption about almonds overlooks many diet groups. People on a raw food diet will typically get 67% of their calories from fats, and mostly nuts. Vegans and vegetarians may also eat a much higher portion of nuts. Lastly, even though it is hard to believe in these obese/overweight times, there are many people actually trying to gain weight, and looking for high calorie foods. Check the comments on the high calorie foods article for proof.

Beyond that, a method of ranking had to be chosen, and weight was chosen over calories. The goal of this article is to inform readers about new foods they can add to their diet to get more calcium. Whether that is a teaspoon of herbs, a bowl of yogurt, or a handful of almonds. There is an extended list of calcium rich foods, for even more suggestions that covers pretty much everything. If even that is not enough, you can use the nutrient ranking tool to find even more foods to suit you. Hope those thoughts help clarify things, and thanks again for the feedback.

Posted on 2012-09-24 12:58:17
Name:L
Location:Australia
Subject:Calcium Absorption
Great reference. However, you don't specify if the tahini is hulled or unhulled. My understanding is that unhulled tahini is nearly double the calcium. Also spinach (unlike other greans like kale and brocoli) is high in oxalic acid which can reduce absorbtion. I have also read that calcium from milk is only about 40% absorbed. Could you clarify absorbtion rates if information is available? Thanks.
Posted on 2012-11-04 08:43:37
Name:Barry
Location:Scotland
Subject:Almond milk
Hi what about home made almond milk one part almonds to three parts water used mainly for cereal? How could I measure the calcium content? Best regards, Barry.
Posted on 2012-11-20 13:19:38
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: Almond Milk
Hi Barry, thanks for your question. Are you drinking every part of the almond? That is to say, all the fiber and skin from the nuts? Or are you filtering the milk?

If you are drinking all of it, then you can simply use the almond nutrition facts, and calculate the amount of calcium from the amount of almonds you used. For example, if you used 1 cup of almonds, then 1 cup of your almond milk, mixed evenly, would have 1/4 of the calcium from the cup of almonds. That is to say, using your 1 part to 3 parts. So 1 cup of raw almonds contains 378mg (38% DV) of calcium, and 1 cup of your milk (1 part to 3 parts water) would provide 95mg (10% DV). Calcium is water soluble, so you can expect it to be in the water (or milk).

Posted on 2012-11-21 02:30:24
Name:Olafr
Location:Finland
Subject:Chia Seeds
Everyone seems to forget Chia Seeds. They're an excellent source of calcium and omega-3 as well-- even better than flax. 100g offers 63% of your daily calcium needs. Though of course a better amount to eat is roughly 28-56g a day and that still offers a whole lot. 18 to 36% of your daily need.
Also, all of you talking about soy, fermented soy doesn't have the same effects are unfermented soy products. I could rant about that for a long time but that's off topic and up to your own decision to eat or not.
Anyway, if it's possible for you to edit this I think chia seed would be a wonderful addition. To digest flax it must be ground. Chia can be digested without being ground.
Posted on 2012-12-12 07:57:23
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: Chia Seeds
Hi Olafr, thanks for your comment and suggestion. Chia seeds have now been added to the extended list of calcium rich foods.
Posted on 2012-12-12 08:00:59
Name:Barbara Beale
Location:Shrewsbry UK
Subject:Chia Seeds
Hi, Where can I get the chia seeds please?There is bad history of osteoporesis in my family. Do we have a disease of absorption? Thanks, Barbara.
Posted on 2012-12-28 09:51:31
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: Chia Seeds
Hi Barbara, thanks for your question. Chia seeds are likely available at your local health food store, and can also be ordered from Amazon.com. Osteoporosis has many causes including a lack of muscle building exercises, as well as low vitamin D. Get your calcium levels checked to determine if it is the cause, and be careful about taking excessive calcium supplements.
Posted on 2012-12-28 16:59:14
Name:Claire
Location:South Africa
Subject:Fresh Herbs for Calcium
I'm a vegan and my son a lactovegetarian - because I'm a little concerned about his calcium intake, so I loved this article!! As avid food gardeners we have a lot of the above mentioned herbs in 'fresh' format - how do these rate in terms of calcium content?
Posted on 2013-02-27 11:15:57
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: Fresh Herbs for Calcium
Hi Claire, thanks for your question. Fresh herbs, particularly thyme, rosemary, basil, spearmint, peppermint, and dill can all be a good part of increasing calcium intake, but are not great sources of calcium on their own. 1/4 cup of fresh basil provides 10mg (1% DV) of calcium. As such, you are better off getting calcium from fresh greens like turnip greens and kale.
Posted on 2013-02-27 14:25:47
Name:Rose
Location:Connecticut
Subject:Excess Calcium
My doctor told me after a blood test that my calcium is very high. I am a breast cancer survivor and had a full hysterectomy. I thought I was doing the right thing by taking 5000mg calcium. I don't know what to eat now. My diet consist of low fat yogurt, milk, and green veggies such as broccoli, brussels sprouts, and asparagus etc. What should I do?
Posted on 2013-04-25 18:19:27
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: Excess Calcium (Hypercalcemia)
Hi Rose, thanks for your question and sharing your experience. High blood calcium, or hypercalcemia, can be treated in a variety of ways, depending on the cause. If you think your hypercalcemia was caused by your diet and supplements, then stop the supplements and avoid the low fat dairy for a while, and see if your calcium is lower by your next test. If your calcium level does not go down, your hypercalcemia maybe caused by primary hyperparathyroidism, and you will want to get your thyroid checked. However, for now, just stop the supplements, change your diet, and see if that works. Hope those thoughts help.
Posted on 2013-04-26 02:42:41
Name:George
Location:Colorado
Subject:Stop the DAIRY (RE: Excess Calcium)
Rose, eat massive amounts of raw food and especially leafy greens. Dairy is your enemy in your situation.
Posted on 2013-04-27 17:18:37
Name:Pat
Location:West Chester, PA
Subject:Spinach and Oxalates
Spinach is a very nutritious vegetable but much of the calcium absorption is blocked by the natural oxalate content.
Posted on 2013-05-05 08:33:53
Name:Dennis
Location:California
Subject:HIV Meds & Osteopenia
I just had a bone density test and was found to have Osteopenia or "weak bones." I've been HIV + for about four years and on a HIV medication, Atripla, for about three. Atripla contains 3 medications and one of them, Tenofovir, may be the cause of my bone weakness. I hate the thought of transitioning from Atripla to another drug. My doctor has recommended 1000-2000 IUs of Vitamin D3 and 1500 mg of elemental calcium daily (split dose, 3x/day with meals). I am concerned about vascular health though and reluctant to take the supplements. On the other hand, so many of the high calcium foods (dairy) may also contribute to higher cholesterol levels. Do you have any suggestions on how I might best navigate this? THX
Posted on 2013-07-03 20:15:28
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: HIV Meds & Osteopenia
Hi Dennis, thanks for your question and sorry to hear of your situation. It does appear to be tricky. The good news is that the question of calcium supplements and cardiovascular risk is controversial, and therefore, should not out weight the benefit of the supplements. Try taking the supplements while keeping an eye on your blood calcium level at your next blood test, or check up. As long as your blood (serum) calcium remains in a normal level you are likely ok. The Office of Dietary Supplements states "Many scientists have questioned the strength of the available evidence that links supplemental calcium intake with CVD risk...In their 2012 review of prospective studies and randomized clinical trials, Wang and colleagues concluded that calcium intake from diet or supplements appears to have little or no effect on CVD risk but the available evidence does not allow for a definitive conclusion..." That said, getting away from the supplements would be best when your bones are healthy. In regards to dairy foods, consider low fat or non-fat options. Dark leafy greens are also an excellent heart healthy source of calcium. Hope that helps.
Posted on 2013-07-04 02:19:26
Name:Jostein
Location:Norway
Subject:Amaranth
According to what I can find Amaranth is a good source for calcium and its got more than milk per 100 grams, and more than dark leafy greens. Should be on this list I think.
Posted on 2013-08-29 23:38:08
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: Amaranth
Hi Jostein, thanks for your comment. 100 grams of cooked Amaranth provides 47mg (5% DV) of calcium. This is less than both dark leafy greens and milk. However, as Amaranth grain is a good source of calcium it has been added to the extended list of calcium rich foods below Amaranth greens. Here are the complete nutrition facts for cooked Amaranth grain.
Posted on 2013-08-30 02:43:19
Name:Carole Heath
Location:Surrey
Subject:Stopping calcium supplements
I have been on a site recently which has said that calcium supplements are not always good for the health. I take a daily tablet of calcium and magnesium. I also take a daily multi vitamin. After reading some of the comments by people on this particular site I think I will ditch the calcium supplement and get my intake from foods. I know that Soya products like the Soya milk is good for bone density and I read it also helps cholesterol levels too.
Posted on 2013-09-16 07:38:30
Name:Rob
Location:Essex
Subject:Bone broth
Broth is also a very good source of calcium and various other minerals, use it as a base for soups or drink it warm from a mug on a cold day, delicious!
Posted on 2013-09-20 21:21:27
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: Bone broth
Hi Rob, thanks for your comment. According the the nutrition facts for both chicken and beef broth, each provides 1% DV calcium per cup (8 fl ounces). However, both are low in calories, and rich in other minerals. You are right to say it makes a health ingredient or beverage. Also, the manner in which the broth is made likely affects the calcium level.
Posted on 2013-09-23 04:08:34
Name:Leo
Location:New York
Subject:Egg Shell Powder
Even though 100 grams of sesame seeds provides 98% DV of calcium, I've read that most of that calcium is in the form of calcium oxalate which is not easily absorbed and may contribute to the formation of kidney stones which are formed from calcium combining with oxalate. In seeking an alternative source of calcium I've come across egg shell powder but haven't found a listing for it here. Will an entry for egg shell powder or simply egg shells be provided or is the nutritional content of egg shells already included somewhere?
Posted on 2013-11-16 04:22:11
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: Egg Shell Powder
Hi Leo, thanks for sharing your opinion and for your question. The nutrition facts for egg shell powder have not been analyzed. Likely it is very high in calcium, but is something more in the domain of a natural supplement than a food, and so will not be included on this list.
Posted on 2013-11-17 05:27:28
Name:Leo
Location:New York
Subject:Alternate Sources of Calcium
I've also come across Red Marine Algae and Hemp Seeds as nutritional sources of calcium and other nutrients. Will these be considered for evaluation as foods?
Posted on 2013-11-17 05:28:16
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: Alternate Sources of Calcium
Hi Leo, thanks for sharing these sources and for your question. As Spriulina, a form of algae, is already in the database, it is likely that Red Marin Algae will be added in the next year or so. The same could be said for hemp seeds.
Posted on 2013-11-18 06:27:48
Name:Deepa
Location:Hyderabad
Subject:Sesame seeds, good or bad..?
Hi, I am very low on calcium so I was asked to use more of dairy products and green leaves. I recently started taking 100gms of sesame seeds with 300ml milk a day. Is there higher risk of kidney stones because of this sesame seeds or I will survive for quite long without that problem as I lack calcium. Please give me a suggestion. Thank you, Deepa.
Posted on 2013-12-15 23:52:28
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: Sesame seeds, good or bad..?
Hi Deepa, thanks for your question. Sesame seeds are a good source of calcium, however, you have to be aware that they contain oxalates which can increase risk of kidney disease. Has anyone else in your family had kidney stones before? If not, you may be ok. However, to be cautious, you may scale back to 25 grams of sesame seeds a day, and increase your milk/yogurt intake. Eating more greens also helps.

Another draw back on sesame seeds is that they are high in calories, so unless you are trying to gain weight, it would be best to also scale back to 25 grams for that reason. However, if you are trying to gain weight, you can consume 50 grams of sesame seeds. I hope that helps.

Posted on 2013-12-17 20:28:22
Name:Daniele Santos
Location:Canada
Subject:Baking almond crumbs
Hi, I make almond milk at home (raw almonds blended and filtered through a fine strainer) and use the filter leftovers in the bread I also make. Do you think this is a good idea (putting in the bread)? And considering the almond gets toasted while the bread dough is baking, is the calcium still absorbable by our body?
Posted on 2014-01-07 00:41:19
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: Baking almond crumbs
Hi Daniele, thanks for your question. Baking the almonds in the bread would not affect their calcium content, and you will still be able to absorb the calcium. That said, calcium is water soluble, meaning that most of the calcium would go through to the almond milk you are making. The filter leftovers would still have some calcium content however, and are also great to add to the bread due to the fiber content. Hope that helps.
Posted on 2014-01-13 18:12:37
Name:Susan
Location:Louisiana
Subject:Dairy does not prevent osteoporosis
For over 65 years, I consumed lots of dairy --about 1 quart of milk and yogurt per day. Also, ingested cal-mag or mineral supplements for 10 years, later in life. This did little for preventing osteoporosis or even building bone quickly!

I fractured my hip in 2006, received two compression fractures of my lumbar spine in 2012 and 2014, and fractured other spines in between time, as well as fractured my pelvis in 2013. Not all occurred from falls. Some just broke from reaching.

My exercise was wrong, I've now learned. I swam 1 mile per day or cycled, but I also walked 2.5 miles per day prior to injuring my knee and receiving a total knee replacement in 2007.

In 2012, in order to reduce pain and inflammation, I ate an anti-inflammatory diet which became totally vegan. Now, I carefully select plants and seeds that have nutrients I need to build bone quickly.

Recently, my attending Board-Certified Orthopaedic Surgeon whom I requested checked my x-rays at the time of the pelvic fracture, and 3 weeks later, said to me that he would expect to see bones built like mine after 3 months, but not after 3 weeks. He never saw anyone build bone so quickly. By the time I finished physical therapy, 4 weeks later, another x-ray showed my pelvis was totally healed. All x-rays were within a two month time span and showed a complete healing on my fracture.

I have ingested 6 cups chopped collard greens/day with 1 cup cannellini beans, one red onion, fresh garlic, and assorted other foods high in calcium, magnesium, boron, and other nutrients cited in a book, entitled: Building Bone Vitality: A Revolutionary Diet Plan to Prevent Bone Loss and Reverse Osteoporosis--Without Dairy by Amy Lanou and Michael Castleman (May 1, 2009).

One does not need dairy to build bone. In fact, an increasing number of physicians subscribe to the theory that dairy acts to acidify blood, and the calcium in our bones is leached out to reduce the acidity. See this NY Times article for more info.

I only have consumed foods grown by the organic method without herbicides and other chemical pest controls, chemical fertilizers, etc. for 35 years and hope to grow my own in raised beds as soon as my compost is ready.

Why organic? Because chemically "treated" agriculture contains mineral chelators. As explained by expert: Don Huber, Ph.D., an award-winning, internationally recognized scientist and professor emeritus of plant pathology at Purdue University for 50 years. His agriculture research is focused on the epidemiology and control of soil - borne plant pathogens, with specific emphasis on microbial ecology, cultural and biological controls, and the physiology of host - parasite relationships.

Dr. Huber said in an interview posted online with osteopathic physician, Dr. Jim Mercola: "There are zero peer-reviewed scientific papers establishing the safety of the GMO (genetically modified organism) crops or of the products that they’re engineered to accept or produce."

The scientists cannot talk about genetic engineering without talking about the chemicals they are genetically engineered to tolerate, "especially glyphosate, it’s not just an herbicide. It was first patented as a mineral chelator. It immobilizes nutrients, so they’re not physiologically available for all of those health functions that we really on. It’s patented as a very effective antibiotic for a large number of organisms, especially for our intestinal microorganisms, our gut bacteria."

Dr. Huber went on to say: "The problem is that they’re potent antibiotics for the good guys both in the soil as well as in our intestines or the intestines of our animals.

As a consequence of that, when you take out Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Enterococcus faecalis, and those organisms... Those are what keep us healthy either by providing accessibility to the minerals in our food or producing many of the vitamins that we need for our life. But they’re also the natural biological controls to keep Clostridium, Salmonella, and E.coli from developing in our system."

By eating food grown by the organic method, and by eating vegan and choosing to best whole foods for my body, I am getting the nutrients needed to build and repair.

I add 2,000 IU of vitamin D3 per day, and more weight bearing exercise --the missing link to keeping bones strong. Dairy does not prevent osteoporosis or build strong bones --that's propaganda by the dairy industry.

Posted on 2014-03-31 20:48:26
Name:Bunny
Location:Louisiana
Subject:Whole foods vs supplements
Whole foods have a range of various nutrients that work together whereas supplements only have individual nutrients and even those are lacking.

Additionally, while certain seeds and nuts also contain calcium, they also contain a huge amount of calories. I eat 6 cups of chopped, steamed collard greens cooked with garlic, a red Bermuda onion, and a serving of cannellini beans, with other ingredients rich in calcium and magnesium added for both taste and nutritional value and receive a bountiful supply of both calcium and other bone building nutrients with a lower fat content and have not gained weight. In fact, by eating a vegan diet and selecting the healthiest foods for my body, I've lost weight.

BTW, the highest known source of magnesium in food is pumpkin seeds.

Eating a variety of calcium rich foods plus other nutrients needed and supplementing with vitamin D needed for strong bones and prevention of certain other illnesses is far superior to taking large amounts of supplements.

Posted on 2014-03-31 20:53:37
Name:Bunny
Location:Louisiana
Subject:Highest calcium in beans and legumes
I misread that cannellini beans were the highest known source of calcium in plant foods. While better than most beans, the better source are Black Turtle Soy beans. According to the nutrition label one cup of Beans, black turtle soup, mature seeds, raw is 39 grams of protein, 29% calcium or 294 mg of calcium; Magnesium 294 mg; Phosphorus 810mg and lots of other nutrients.

This is far superior to cannellini (white beans), which has 191 mg of calcium per serving canned.

I generally buy raw,and soak, then cook my own to avoid the toxic constituents leach from the cans into the food.

Posted on 2014-04-01 22:05:50
Name:HealthAliciousNess
Subject:RE: Highest calcium in beans and legumes
Hi Bunny, thanks for your comment. According to the nutrient ranking of beans and legumes highest in calcium there are a few beans higher in calcium gram per gram. Black turtle beans rank at number 58, behind winged beans and french beans. Black beans are a good choice however, and your comment has inspired the idea to create an article on beans/legumes high in calcium. Thanks again.
Posted on 2014-04-02 00:55:45

Post a comment.
Name:          
Location:       
Email:(Optional)
Subject:         

Spam Prevention *(REQUIRED):
Enter the last three letters of this sentence.

References

  1. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 20.
  2. Office Of Dietary Supplements Fact Sheet: Calcium
  3. National Osteoporosis Foundation. NOF osteoporosis prevention: risk factors for osteoporosis, 2003.
  4. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Food labeling: health claims; calcium and osteoporosis, and calcium, vitamin D, and osteoporosis.
  5. Allender PS, Cutler JA, Follmann D, Cappuccio FP, Pryer J, Elliott P. Dietary calcium and blood pressure. Ann Intern Med 1996;124:825-31.
  6. Bucher HC, Cook RJ, Guyatt GH, Lang JD, Cook DJ, Hatala R, et al. Effects of dietary calcium supplementation on blood pressure. JAMA 1996;275:1016-22.
  7. McCarron D, Reusser M. Finding consensus in the dietary calcium-blood pressure debate. J Am Coll Nutr 1999;18:398S-405S.
  8. American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada. Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: vegetarian diets. J Am Diet Assoc 2003;103:748-65.
  9. Rouse IL, Beilin LJ, Armstrong BK, Vandongen R. Blood-pressure-lowering effect of a vegetarian diet: controlled trial in normotensive subjects. Lancet 1983;1:5-10.
  10. Margetts BM, Beilin L, Armstrong BK, Vandongen R. Vegetarian diet in the treatment of mild hypertension: a randomized controlled trial. J Hypertens 1985:S429-31.
  11. Beilin LJ, Armstrong BK, Margetts BM, Rouse IL, Vandongen R. Vegetarian diet and blood pressure. Nephron 1987;47:37-41.
  12. Berkow SE, Barnard ND. Blood pressure regulation and vegetarian diets. Nutr Rev 2005;63:1-8.
  13. Slattery M, Edwards S, Boucher K, Anderson K, Caan B. Lifestyle and colon cancer: an assessment of factors associated with risk. Am J Epidemiol 1999;150:869-77.
  14. Kampman E, Slattery M, Bette C, Potter J. Calcium, vitamin D, sunshine exposure, dairy products, and colon cancer risk. Cancer Causes Control 2000;11:459-66.
  15. Holt P, Atillasoy E, Gilman J, Guss J, Moss SF, Newmark H, et al. Modulation of abnormal colonic epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation by low-fat dairy foods. JAMA 1998;280:1074-9.
  16. Biasco G, Paganelli M. European trials on dietary supplementation for cancer prevention. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1999;889:152-6.
  17. Cascinu S, Del Ferro E, Cioccolini P. Effects of calcium and vitamin supplementation on colon cancer cell proliferation in colorectal cancer. Cancer Invest 2000;18:411-6.
  18. Martinez ME, Willett WC. Calcium, vitamin D, and colorectal cancer: a review of epidemiologic evidence. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1998;7:163-8.
  19. Chan JM, Stampfer MJ, Gann PH, Gaziano JM, Giovannucci EL. Dairy products, calcium, and prostate cancer risk in the Physicians Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;74:549-54.
  20. Giovannucci EL, Rimm EB, Wolk A, Ascherio A, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, et al. Calcium and fructose intake in relation to risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Res 1998;58:442-7.
  21. Chan JM, Giovannucci E, Andersson SO, Yuen J, Adami HO, Wok A. Dairy products, calcium, phosphorous, vitamin D, and risk of prostate cancer (Sweden). Cancer Causes Control 1998;9:559-66.
  22. Chan JM, Giovannucci EL. Dairy products, calcium, and vitamin D and risk of prostate cancer. Epidemiol Rev 2001;23:87-92.
  23. Rodriguez C, McCullough ML, Mondul AM, Jacobs EJ, Fakhrabadi-Shokoohi D, Giovannucci EL, et al. Calcium, dairy products, and risk of prostate cancer in a prospective cohort of United States men. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2003;12:597-603.
  24. Kesse E, Bertrais S, Astorg P, Jaouen A, Arnault N, Galan P, et al. Dairy products, calcium and phosphorus intake, and the risk of prostate cancer: results of the French prospective SU.VI.MAX (Supplementation en Vitamines et Mineraux Antioxydants) study. Br J Nutr 2006;95:539-45.
  25. Mitrou PN, Albanes D, Weinstein SJ, Pietinen P, Taylor PR, Virtamo J, et al. A prospective study of dietary calcium, dairy products and prostate cancer risk (Finland). Int J Cancer 2007;120:2466-73.
  26. Chan JM, Pietinen P, Virtanen M, Chan JM, Pietinen P, Virtanen M, et al. Diet and prostate cancer risk in a cohort of smokers, with a specific focus on calcium and phosphorus (Finland). Cancer Causes Control 2000;11:859-67.
  27. Schuurman AG, Van den Brandt PA, Dorant E, Goldbohm RA. Animal products, calcium and protein and prostate cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Br J Cancer 1999;80:1107-13.
  28. Kristal AR, Stanford JL, Cohen JH, Wicklund K, Patterson RE. Vitamin and mineral supplement use is associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1999;8:887-92.
  29. Vlajinac HD, Marinkovic JM, Ilic MD, Kocev NI. Diet and prostate cancer: a case-control study. Eur J Cancer 1997;33:101-7.
  30. Jackson RD, LaCroix AZ, Gass M, Wallace RB, Robbins J, Lewis CE, et al. Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures. N Engl J Med 2006;354:669-83.
  31. Curhan G, Willett WC, Rimm E, Stampher MJ. A prospective study of dietary calcium and other nutrients and the risk of symptomatic kidney stones. N Engl J Med 1993;328:833-8.
  32. Bihl G, Meyers A. Recurrent renal stone disease?advances in pathogenesis and clinical management. Lancet 2001;358:651-6.
  33. Hall WD, Pettinger M, Oberman A, Watts NB, Johnson KC, Paskett ED, et al. Risk factors for kidney stones in older women in the Southern United States. Am J Med Sci 2001;322:12-8.
  34. Borghi L, Schianchi T, Meschi T, Guerra A, Allegri F, Maggiore U, et al. Comparison of two diets for the prevention of recurrent stones in idiopathic hypercalciuria. N Engl J Med 2002;346:77-84.
  35. Shannon MT, Wilson BA, Stang CL. Health Professionals Drug Guide. Stamford, CT: Appleton and Lange, 2000.
  36. Jellin JM, Gregory P, Batz F, Hitchens K. Pharmacist's Letter/Prescriber's Letter Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. 3rd ed. Stockton, CA: Therapeutic Research Facility, 2000.
  37. Peters ML, Leonard M, Licata AA. Role of alendronate and risedronate in preventing and treating osteoporosis. Cleve Clin J Med 2001;68:945-51.
  38. Gallagher JC, Goldgar D, Moy A. Total bone calcium in normal women: effect of age and menopause status. J Bone Min Res 1987;2:491-6.
  39. Dawson-Hughes B, Dallal GE, Krall EA, Sadowski L, Sahyoun N, Tannenbaum S. A controlled trial of the effect of calcium supplementation on bone density in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med 1990;323:878-83.
  40. Elders PJ, Lips P, Netelenbos JC, van Ginkel FC, Khoe E, van der Vijgh WJ, et al. Long-term effect of calcium supplementation on bone loss in perimenopausal women. J Bone Min Res 1994;9:963-70.
  41. Abrams SA, Silber TJ, Esteban NV, Vieira NE, Stuff JE, Meyers R, et al. Mineral balance and bone turnover in adolescents with anorexia nervosa. J Pediatr 1993;123:326-31.
  42. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D and Fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1997.
  43. Weaver CM, Heaney RP. Calcium. In: Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 10th ed. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2006:194-210.
  44. Mark J Bolland, senior research fellow,1 Alison Avenell, clinical senior lecturer,2 John A Baron, professor,3 Andrew Grey, associate professor,1 Graeme S MacLennan, senior research fellow,2 Greg D Gamble, research fellow,1 and Ian R Reid, professor1. Effect of calcium supplements on risk of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular events: meta-analysis. BMJ. 2010; 341: c3691. Published online 2010 July 29. doi: 10.1136/bmj.c3691.
  45. Mark J Bolland, research fellow1, P Alan Barber, senior lecturer1, Robert N Doughty, associate professor1, Barbara Mason, research officer1, Anne Horne, research fellow1, Ruth Ames, research officer1, Gregory D Gamble, research fellow1, Andrew Grey, associate professor1, Ian R Reid, professor1. Vascular events in healthy older women receiving calcium supplementation: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2008; 336 doi: 10.1136/bmj.39440.525752.BE (Published 31 January 2008).